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Course List

Compulsory Courses

K001. History of Philosophy Ι

Detailed overview of ancient Greek philosophical thought from its origins to the end of the classical period. With reference to original texts from ancient philosophical literature and pertinent collections of fragments, a thorough examination of the cosmological speculations of the Presocratics and of the emergence of the issues related to the nature of logos in thinkers such as Heraclitus, the Eleatics and the Sophists. The Socratic method of aporia and elenchus. Plato's theory of Ideas and his structural analysis of the soul and of the state. The advancement of logic, scientific methodology, ontology and ethics by Aristotle. Several problems and concepts which have evolved during this period are discussed in the light of contemporary criticism, as also are the various philosophical positions, the arguments and the debates which have emerged within the context of ancient Greek philosophical thinking.

K002. History of Philosophy ΙΙ

Presentation of the development of philosophical thinking from the beginnings of the Hellenistic period to the Middle Ages. The philosophy of the Epicureans, the Stoics and the Sceptics, of both the Academic and the Pyrrhonian variety. The debates among the various schools. The gradual emergence of neo-dogmatic tendencies, mainly in the area of Middle- and Neoplatonism. The formation of new conceptions of man's nature, of his fate and his place within the cosmos, under the influence of the Judeao-Christian tradition. The new developments in the area of the methodology of science. With reference to original texts of ancient philosophical literature, and to pertinent collections of fragments, the main directions characterizing ancient philosophy until its final phase are studied. New tendencies occurring within the framework of Byzantine philosophy, but also by theologians in the West, such as St. Augustine, Boethius, Anselm, Thomas Aquinas and William of Occam are discussed. Focus is laid on problems in ontology, epistemology and logic, which were first expounded during this period, and also on issues pertaining to the relation between faith and knowledge. The appropriation of the Platonic and the Aristotelian tradition by Western thinkers, but also with some reference to parallel developments in Islamic thought.

K003. History of Philosophy ΙΙΙ

The course constitutes a survey of the development of philosophical thought in Western Europe, with a view to highlighting its continuity from the 16th to the 18th century. Ιt provides a systematic discussion of the main theories of philosophers from Descartes to Kant, focusing on their epistemological and metaphysical views, and more particularly on the controversy between rationalists and empiricists. The reconstruction of a variety of positions and of the arguments which sustain them is undertaken on the basis of a careful study and a critical analysis of texts of this period.

K004. Introduction to Philosophy

Τhe course provides a first systematic introduction to philosophical reflection. The approach adopted aims at training the students in the use of basic concepts and logical tools that are necessary for the analysis of philosophical problems and for the construction and the critical discussion of arguments. It draws upon passages from well known texts from the History of Philosophy and it involves the study of issues from various areas, including Logic and the Philosophy of Language, Metaphysics, Epistemology and the Philosophy of Science, Ethics, Political Philosophy, Aesthetics, the Philosophy of Religion and the Philosophy of History.

K005. Political Philosophy

The course deals, on one hand, with elements of Political Science and the History of political theories and, on the other hand, methodological topics concerning Political Science and Political Philosophy. Special attention is paid to the relationship between political theories and the historical framework in which they were emerged, as well as to the philosophical currents from which they were influenced. Special attention is also given to specific political thinkers and their work.

K006. Ethics

The course constitutes a systematic introduction to philosophical reflection in the field of ethics. It provides an analysis of meta-ethical issues concerning the nature and justification of moral judgments, a critical exposition of the main normative theories including utilitarianism, Kantian deontology and Aristotelian virtue ethics, and the study of recent debates in the area of applied ethics. It focuses on the discussion of particular problems, such as euthanasia, abortion, cloning, the death penalty, just war doctrine, business ethics and environmental ethics, and aims at exploring the relations between ethics and religion, politics, law and art.

K007. Epistemology and Metaphysics

The course is designed to make students familiar with various aspects of recent and contemporary metaphysics and epistemology. What metaphysics and epistemology are. Discussion of some of the following topics in metaphysics: what universals are, realism and nominalism about them; how (if at all) the concept of a cause can be defined; determinism and freedom of act; identity of objects through time; identity of persons through time; the ontology of possible worlds; the ontology of events. Theories about truth. Discussion of some of the following topics in epistemology: scepticism and how (if at all) it can be overcome; attempts at defining the concept of knowledge; under what conditions a belief is justified; philosophical theories about sense-perception; the old and the new riddle of induction; a priori knowledge; naturalized epistemology.

K008. Philosophy of Social Sciences

Enlightenment and Social Sciences. Foundations of scientific inquiry. Methodological monism in Social Sciences. Holism and Individualism as methodological programmes: The evidence from Economics and Sociology. Philosophy of Economics. The challenges of Historicism and Normativism. Towards a normative philosophy of social sciences. Contemporary criticism. Two examples: The Economics of Science and the Sociology of Science. Non-analytical epistemological approaches: Hermeneutics and Critical Social Theory. Institutions and rules. The problem of social co-operation. A value-free social science? Facts and values. Rationality and Relativism. The main functions of scientific knowledge.

K009. Philosophy of the Natural Sciences

This is a historical introduction to the philosophy of the natural sciences. Among the topics covered are the following:

  • The nature and aim of science.
  • The demarcation between science and non-science.
  • The natural versus the social sciences.
  • Scientific method.
  • Scientific explanation.
  • Theory-testing and theory-choice.
  • Theory-change and scientific revolutions.
  • Scientific progress.
  • Scientific realism.
  • Sociological and feminist approaches to science.

These topics are discussed with reference to the works of: Aristotle, Plato, Bacon, Galileo, Descartes, Newton, Hume, Kant, Whewell, Mill, Poincaré, Duhem, the Logical Positivists, Popper, Kuhn, and Feyerabend.

K010. Philosophy of Language

The course covers various aspects of recent and contemporary philosophy of language. We shall discuss some of the following topics, which concern particular kinds of linguistic expressions: views on the semantics of proper names; Russell's theory of definite descriptions; indexicals; reports of propositional attitudes; indicative and subjunctive conditionals; the semantics of vague words. We shall also discuss some of the following topics, which concern language in general: Frege's distinction between sense and reference; Davidsonian semantics; Grice's attempt at defining the concept of meaning and his analysis of implicature; Wittgenstein's reflections on language; Dummett's semantic views; Quine's positions on the indeterminacy of translation; Chomsky's theories about knowledge of a language.

K011. Philosophy of Mind

Central issues related to the nature of the mind and the mind-body problem, are examined. Our main aim is the presentation and assessment of some basic metaphysical theories such as dualism, eliminativism, reductionism, functionalism and non-reductive materialism. Additional issues examined are mental causation, consciousness and folk psychology.

K012. Legal Theory

In this course we will present the basic problems of legal theory and philosophy of law (the nature of law and legal obligation, rules and standards, the legal regulation of morality, theories of punishment, etc.), the work of leading thinkers (Hart, Kelsen, Finnis, Fuller, Dworkin, Posner but also Rawls and Nozick) and the most important schools of legal theory (Legal Positivism, Natural Law Theory, American Legal Realism, Law and Economics, Critical Legal Studies).

K013. History of Civilization I (Antiquity)

The aim is to study the ancient Greek and Roman civilizations, the reception of which, in the past and in our times, has been characterized by consecutive regressions, elevations and recessions, indicative of feelings of merit or demerit, attraction or repulsion that this civilization has caused and still causes to its receivers. Topics such as tragedy, philosophy, myth, eros, political action, art, technology, war etc. are studied through the existing (philological or artistic) evidence and their (positive or negative) influence is evaluated.

K014. History of Civilization II (Middle Ages)

The course aims at a first approach to a (as far as possible) global consideration and understanding of the peculiarities of the west-european Middles Ages. In view of the didactic aim, the course will not focus on a presentation of facts, but an analysis of the basic characteristics of the era, especially those that are place- and time-independent. The first part is devoted to medieval beliefs about basic matters (space-time-man) in order to make clear the way of thinking of medieval people. In the second part, which deals mainly with the framework of social and economic history, the object of study is the factors and institutions shaping medieval life in historic fact (agricultural production, social stratification, chivalry, medieval town etc.).

K015. History of Civilization III (Modern Institutions)

Aim of this course is to provide an overview of the European cultural movements from the 16th century until today. Taking into consideration the large extent of the subject two different approaches are attempted. Either the course has detailed insight into a certain era or a specific topic, or it focuses on the development of cultural phenomena which are commons for all European countries and span long periods. Under the first approach such topics as Renaissance, Reformation, 17th century's French Classicism, Baroque civilization, Romanticism are examined. The second approach investigates evolutionary processes, like the organizational and institutional development of the modern European states from their emergence to the constitutional state of the 19th century. On the completion of the course, students should be able to investigate these subjects in the framework of more specialized courses.

K016. History of Mathematics

The course covers a 3600 years period of history of mathematics, from 1800 BC to about 1800 AD. Its aim is to gain an understanding of how mathematical ideas and practices have developed over time, how social and cultural factors influenced the development of mathematics, and, conversely, how mathematics contributed to society and human culture.

  • Mesopotamian and Egyptian mathematics: Number systems, arithmetic, geometry; the sources and the problems they raise; influences.
  • Ancient Greek mathematics: Their distinct character (geometry, logic, axiomatic structure, mathematical proof); the sources and the problems they raise; the three classic problems; proportion theory and incommensurability; work of individual mathematicians; mathematics in the period of Late Antiquity.
  • Mathematics in the Middle Ages and the Early Modern Period Islamic mathematics: the translation of Greek texts; the Hindu-Arabic numerals and the decimal place-value system; algebra; work of individual mathematicians.
  • Mathematics in medieval Europe: the translations of Greek and Arabic texts; work of individual mathematicians; Byzantine mathematics.
  • Early modern mathematics: the revival of Greek mathematics; algebra in the Renaissance; the solution of cubic and quartic equations; Francois Viete and the emergence of modern mathematics; work of individual mathematicians.
  • Seventeenth century: analytic geometry; number theory; the theory of equations; elementary probability; the pre-calculus; Newton, Leibniz, and the invention of the calculus.
  • Eighteenth century: topics in the history of 18th-century mathematics.

The course is concluded with an outline of the post-1800 mathematics.

K017. History of the Physical Sciences

This course examines key episodes from the history of the physical sciences, with an emphasis on the development of physical theory since the 17th century. Among the topics discussed are the following:

  • Motion and gravity from Aristotle to Newton.
  • The Newtonian Universe.
  • Theories of heat and electricity in the 18th century.
  • 19th century - the development of thermodynamics/the macroscopic approach to nature, the atomic debates/the microscopic approach to nature, the wave theory of light, the development of electromagnetism.
  • The great discoveries at the end of the 19th century: X-rays, radioactivity, electrons, argon.
  • Beginnings of the 20th century - ether and the theory of relativity, the quantum revolution, the problem of atomic structure.

K018. History of Biology

  • General Overview.
  • Concepts about the phenomena of life during the Ancient and Medieval Times.
  • Renaissance (16th, 17th century). Vitalistic and Mechanistic view of the world.
  • The Natural History during the period of the Enlightenment, Taxonomy (18th century).
  • Biology as science, development of new branches. Transformation of the traditional concepts about life (19th century).
  • The century of classical genetics, population genetics, theories about the origin of life, molecular biology (20th century).
  • Biotechnology and commercialization of genetic material, Human Genome Project, Developmental Biology, technological developments in the 20th century.
  • The post genomic era, bioinformatics and high-scale analysis technologies (21st century).

K019. History of Technology

Introductory course to the history and historiography of technological change. The emphasis is placed on the history of technology in modernity and, more specifically, on key examples of artifacts that were initially introduced as universal (steam engine, electric dynamo, electronic computer). Selected comparisons between modern and pre-modern technologies are also included.

K020. Introduction to Art History

This course is an introduction to art history through discussion of selected works, primarily paintings, sculptures and architectural monuments, from prehistory to the present. Cultural periods and works of art will be examined from many points of view, including style, meanings, artist's techniques and historical - social context. Students will learn to consider art as a creative action (or as the result of this action) aiming at the understanding of the world and the performance of thoughts and feelings. They will get familiarized with major categories of art (such as landscape, genre, narrative painting, portraiture) and also with key terms, conventions and institutions associated with western art. Among the objectives of the course is the abolition of prejudices through critical examination of works and finally the enjoyment of art.

K021. History of Economic Thought

Economic ideas of the ancient world and of the middle ages. Preclassical economic thought: mercantilism and physiocracy. The Classical school of economic thought: Smith, Ricardo, Say, Malthus, J. S. Mill. Socialism and K. Marx. The Marginalist school: Jevons, Walras and Menger. The neoclassical school of economic thought: Marshall, Edgeworth, Pareto, Fisher, Clark. Alternative approaches: The Historical school and Institutionalism. The Keynesian Revolution.

K022. Introduction to Psychology

The course offers a systematic introduction to the methodology, history and theory of psychology. The biological bases of behaviour and cognition are examined, as well as their ontogenetic development. Special emphasis is placed on the theory and methodology of cognitive psychology with detailed reference to perception, memory, learning and the production and comprehension of oral and written language. The second part of the course covers topics belonging to social and clinical psychology. It addresses issues concerning motives, feelings, conscience, as well as influences of society. Clinical research and the future of psychotherapy is discussed.

K023. Introduction to the Neurosciences

The epistemological plan of the neurosciences aims at exploring all parameters, from the microscopic to the macroscopic ones, that are related to the structure and the operation of the neural system and its relations with behavior. The course gives an introductory presentation of the historical and methodological problems of this inter-disciplinary field.

K024. Cognitive Science

Cognitive science is the `new' science of the mind. It is an interdisciplinary field that examines cognition through the collaboration mainly between psychology and computer science (artificial intelligence), but also philosophy and the neurosciences. The course starts with a history of cognitive science that attempts to explain the circumstances under which the cognitive science program emerged and the problems and questions it addresses. The different methodologies used by cognitive scientists to investigate the mind are described, including the empirical, experimental methods of cognitive psychology, the neuro-imaging techniques of the neurosciences, and the use of simulation in artificial intelligence. The advantages and disadvantages of a mechanistic view of the mind are discussed and the phenomenon of consciousness is examined. The course ends with a discussion of some of the philosophical problems of cognitive science, such as the problem of intentionality and the problem of qualia.

K025. Ancient Greek Language and Literature

Intensive teaching of the ancient Greek language on the basis of representative texts (mainly by prose writers) from the 5th century B.C. to the 5th century A.D. (Herodotus, Thucydides and other historians, orators from Andodikes to Demosthenes, philosophers, such as Plato and Aristotle, writers of the hellenistic and roman period). These texts depict important aspects of the ancient civilization (ideology, economics, mythology, theology, politics, philosophy, mathematics, astronomy, physics, medicine, music etc.) and provide motivation for a deep study of this civilization and its diverse forms of survival.

K026. Elements of Logic and Set Theory

Algebra of sets. Relations, equivalence relations and order relations. Functions. Cardinal numbers. Informal fallacies. Propositional logic: truth-tables, tautological implications, formal proofs. Predicate logic: first-order languages, logical implications, formal proofs.

K027. Introduction to Mathematical Analysis Ι

Discussion of basic notions and presentation of the real line. Sequences, limits. Continuity of a function of a real variable. Differentiation and applications. Elements of integration. Methods of integration Ι.

K028. Introduction to Mathematical Analysis ΙΙ

Methods of integration ΙΙ, applications of integrals. Elements Analytic Geometry on the plane (conic sections) and in space. Elements of Linear Algebra and vector spaces. Discussion of basic algebraic theories and structures.

K029. Introduction to Newtonian Mechanics and the Theory of Relativity

Introduction to notions and techniques of classical Physics. In Newtonian Mechanics, emphasis will be laid on understanding Newton's laws and the laws of conservation of momentum and energy. There will also be an introduction to the special Theory of Relativity and, mainly, the changes it has caused to measuring procedures. For all of these, the mathematics needed are taught either in course Κ027 or by the instructors of this course.

K030. Introduction to Thermodynamics and Electromagnetism

Elementary notions of electromagnetism. The laws of Coulomb, Ohm and Gauss. Faraday's experiments. The idea of electrical field. General review of Maxwell's equations. The character of thermical phenomena and the laws of Thermodynamics. Attempts for analysing thermical phenomena with methods of classical mechanics. Elements of statistical mechanics.

K031. Principles of Economics I

Methodological foundations of economics. The branches of economics and basic economic assumptions. The production possibility curve. The goods markets: demand, supply, equilibrium and the concept of elasticity. Consumer theory. Economic systems: market, mixed and planned economies. Theory of the firm. Market structures: perfect competition, pure monopoly, imperfect competition, oligopoly. Factors of production. Elements of welfare economics.

K032. Principles of Economics ΙΙ

The scope of macroeconomics. Basic macroeconomic concepts and the circular flow of income. Aggregate demand and supply. Classical and Keynesian theories. Determination of national income. Consumption and savings' functions. Investment, government expenditure, exports and imports. Multipliers and fiscal policy. The money market and monetary policy. Unemployment and inflation. The Phillips curve. Neo-Keynesian and neo-classical approaches. International trade. Theories of economic growth.

K033. Introduction to the Social and Human Sciences

This introductory course aims at providing an overview of these sciences that seek to examine economic and social behaviour: economic and social sciences are thus conceived, not only in terms of their historical development, but also in identifying the specific reasons that contributed to their emergence and formation as independent academic disciplines. In this respect, the principal concepts as well as the main problems of each one of them have to be specified. Particular emphasis will be attributed to Economics as the most elaborated, typical and formalized social science, by delineating its object and methodology. The mainstream scientific trends, traditions and schools of thought in Economics, are also of primary importance.

K034. Biology

  • Biology as a science (Short historical perspectives of Biology). Basic characteristics of life.
  • The chemistry of life (Hierarchy of molecular organization of the cell. Biological macromolecules, structure and functions).
  • Energy and metabolism (Laws of Thermodynamics. Biosphere. Biological system, Flow of energy in biosphere, in the cell. Flow of information in the cells and in the cell per se. Cellular metabolism. Metabolism regulation).
  • Cell, structure and functions (Cellular theory. Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cells. Biological membranes. Cellular organelles. Nucleus). Cell cycle (Stages and Regulation of cell cycle. Cell division. Cell death).
  • Genetic Material, DNA (Structure and functions of the DNA). Flow of genetic information.
  • Genetics (Mendel and Classical Genetics). Mutations (Repair mechanisms).
  • Prokaryotic microorganisms, viruses (Microorganisms as tools for basic and applied biological research). Gene Regulation. Molecular Biology.
  • Biotechnology (Technology of Recombinant DNA. Transgenic Technology).
  • Tissues, Organs, Systems (Structure and functions of the nervous and immunological system).
  • Evolution of Life (Concepts about the evolution of life in the pre-Darwinian period. Darwin and natural selection. The new synthesis).
  • Contemporary Issues of Biology (Human Genome Project and Genome Projects for other model organisms. Bioenergy). Technologies and applications of contemporary Biology (Genomics, Proteomics. Bioinformatics, Technology of Stem cells (SC), In-vitro Fertilization (IVF), Gene Therapy, Cloning).
  • Ecology (Historical perspectives. Basics in Ecology).

K035. Statistics

  • Descriptive Statistics: Graphical methods for presenting statistical data. Measures of central tendency, variance, asymmetry, skewness.
  • Elementary probabilities. Total probability theorem and Bayes' formula (theorem). Discrete and continuous distributions: Poisson, binomial, normal. Mean value and variance, coefficient of variation.
  • Confidence intervals and hypothesis tests for the parameters of a normal population and two independent normal populations.
  • Linear regression of data using the method of least squares.
  • Contingency tables. χ2-goodness-of-fit. χ2-independency.

E100. Informatics (Laboratory)

E200. Essay Writing (Laboratory)

Elective-Compulsory Courses

Φ101. Philosophy of Science I

Philosophy of Science emerged as a distinct field of philosophy in the twentieth century, mostly through the work of the Logical Positivists. The course will be devoted to the presentation of the so called "received view of scientific theories", shaped by the logical positivists, but also to the presentation of other contributions by philosophers who criticized and eventually shattered this picture. In particular, apart from the work of the positivists, such as Carnap, Neurath and Schlick, we will study the work of Popper, Lakatos, Kuhn and Feyerabend as well as more recent developments which highlight a sociological perspective. The topics that will concern us in the course of this historical presentation are the demarcation of science from metaphysics and pseudo-science, the distinct character of scientific research, the evaluation of scientific theories, the relation of observation to theory, the way science develops, the rationality of scientific knowledge, the character of the scientific community and the relations between science and society.

Φ102. Philosophy of Science ΙΙ

Characterisation and justification of scientific method. The problem of induction. Theories of confirmation. Models of scientific explanation. Causation. What are the laws of nature? The problem of theory-change. Realism, instrumentalism and empiricism. Naturalised philosophy of science. Objectivity and relativism

Φ103. Philosophy of Law

A seminar which follows the topics covered in the Legal Theory course and approaches in greater detail topics like the clash between the democratic and the liberal principles, social justice and efficiency, individual vs. the community. We will also give great emphasis to the legal regulation of morality and the problem of self-ownership, discussing a series of special topics like abortion, surrogate motherhood, euthanasia, same-sex marriage, pornography, freedom of speech, etc.

Φ104. Aesthetics

Central issues in aesthetics are discussed, such as the nature of aesthetic properties, aesthetic value, the objectivity of aesthetic judgment, the nature of aesthetic experience, the interpretation and evaluation of works of art, definitions of art, the nature of representation, etc.

Φ105. Logic

This course extends the compulsory course in logic. We shall mainly deal with the predicate calculus (otherwise known as quantification theory): we shall see what first-order languages and first-order theories are, learn some proof techniques (following either the method of natural deduction or the so-called method of trees) and train in translating from Greek into the symbolic idiom of the predicate calculus and conversely; the completeness theorem will be mentioned. We shall then deal with modal logic (that is, the logic of the notions of necessity and possibility) learning the main features of various systems there.

Φ106. Philosophical Texts

The course aims at familiarizing students with classical texts in the history of philosophy so that they have a first hand experience of how philosophy is and has been practised. They will discuss the problems dealt with in the texts, the concepts used and they will evaluate arguments and theses. They will take into consideration the relevant secondary literature and assess the text's impact.

Φ107. Applied Ethics

A systematic introduction to the issues discussed in the main areas of contemporary applied ethics, including bioethics, medical ethics, environmental ethics, business ethics and the ethics of war. The course focuses on the analysis of various problems and dilemmas of private and public life, such as cloning, euthanasia, abortion, organ transplants, the protection of the environment, the death penalty, marketing, pornography and the freedom of expression. Τhe approach adopted involves the critical presentation and assessment of opposed theses and arguments, draws on the resources of the most important normative moral theories and involves a philosophical consideration of the relations among ethics, law and politics.

Φ108. Plato and Aristotle

The course aims at studying Plato and Aristotle's ethics, epistemology and metaphysics, through analysing in a systematic manner texts of these philosophers, including the following: (Plato) Gorgias,ProtagorasRepublicTheaetetus, (Aristotle) CategoriesPrior AnalyticsNicomachean EthicsPhysics.

Φ109. Rationalism - Empiricism

The course provides a thorough-going comparative reconstruction of the theories of the main rationalist and empiricist thinkers of the 17th and the 18th centuries, based on the study of passages of basic texts respectively by Descartes, Spinoza and Leibniz, and by Locke, Berkeley and Hume. It proposes a critical analysis of the contrary epistemological claims put forth by the above philosophers and an account of their metaphysical implications. It aims at a systematic assessment of the rationalist - empiricist controversy from the point of view of Kantian and post-Kantian transcendental philosophy and in the light of contemporary developments in the areas of epistemology, the philosophy of language and the philosophy of mind.

Φ110. Analytic Philosophy

A historical and systematic introduction to analytic philosophy focusing on the following issues: Criteria of identification and demarcation of analytic philosophy. Influence of Neo-kantian trends. The philosophy of thought and language in Frege. Moore's critique of idealism and skepticism. Moore's moral philosophy. Russell's theory of descriptions and logical atomism. The early Wittgtenstein and the Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus. Theories of Meaning. Logical Positivism and the critique of metaphysics. The philosophy of ordinary language. Pragmatism and empiricism in Quine. Wittgenstein's late work. Scepticism about meaning. Τhe new theory of reference. The naturalistic turn. Contemporary developments in the philosophy of language and the philosophy of mind.

Φ111. Medieval Philosophy

A historical and systematic account of the central topics of Western Medieval philosophy. Issues such as the relations between faith and Reason, the main arguments for the existence of God, the problem of universals, as well as debates in the areas of moral and political philosophy, are discussed on the basis of a close reading of texts by philosophers and theologians, including, Saint Anselm, Saint Thomas Aquinas, William of Ockham and Duns Scotus. The course also deals briefly with the influence of Platonism and Aristotelianism in the Middle Ages, the exchanges between Christian and Islamic thought and the parallel development of Byzantine philosophy.

Φ112. Economics and Law

The course aims at analyzing the methodological bases of the co-operation between Law and Economics for solving social regulating problems. The first part presents the methodology of Law and Economics in the framework of a general systematics of the sciences, as well as the object of study and the basic notions of each science. The second part concerns the methodological bases of the Economic Analysis of Law and its basic theorems, using tools of positive and deontic Economics.

Φ113. Continental Philosophy

A historical and systematic introduction to the main currents of German and French philosophy of the twentieth century, including phenomenology, existentialism, the Frankfurt School, structuralism and post-structuralism, eventually focusing on the critical analysis of the works of postmodern thinkers, such as Foucault, Derrida and Lyotard. The course is based on the study of a variety of texts and proposes an overall assessment of the influence of continental philosophy in the study of the humanities and the social sciences.

Φ114. Philosophy of Mathematics

Philosophy of Mathematics until Kant. Introduction to the foundation of theories, with emphasis on set theory. Paradoxes (set-theoretic and semantic). Philosophy of Mathematics in the 20th century (Logicism, Formalism, Intuitionism).

Φ115. Philosophy of Physics

Concise analysis of the concepts of space and time from Aristotle to Kant. The absolute view of space and time (Newton). The relational view of space and time (Leibniz, Berkeley, Mach). Substantivalist versus relationist theories of space: The Newton - Leibniz debate in relation to the nature of space. The transcendental reasoning of Kant. The relativistic view of space and time (Einstein versus Lorentz). From space and time to space-time: Special theory of relativity. Philosophical problems in special relativity. Integration of space-time with motion and matter: General theory of relativity. Relativity and realism. Epistemological relativism and relativity theory. Natural geometry of space and conventionality (Poincaré, Reichenbach, Grunbaum). Conventionality and distant simultaneity. Causality in relativity theory. Space-time substantivalism and the hole argument.

Φ116. Philosophy of Biology

In this course, we will examine a range of major topics in the philosophy of biology. We focus on conceptual issues concerning the theory of evolution, its scientific status and the debate between evolutionism and creationism. Then we will discuss questions concerning fitness, the role of genes in determining the behavior of organisms, adaptationism, the concept of biological species, the units of selection, the nature of complexity, sociobiology, biological laws and the nature of evolutionary explanations, teleological explanations, the reducibility of biology to physics, etc.

Φ117. Philosophy and Methodology of Economics

The course consists of the following parts:

  • Basic methodological concepts.
  • Methodological development of social sciences.
  • Contemporary approaches to the methodology of social sciences.
  • Development of economic methodology: Classical, Historical and Neoclassical Schools.
  • Contemporary economic methodology: Robbins, Keynes, Friedman, Samuelson.
  • Value judgments and economics.
  • Contemporary philosophy of science and economics: Popper, Kuhn, Lakatos, Laudan.

Φ118. Philosophy of History

The course is concerned with history, both in the sense of res gestae, i.e., the course of events in the past, and in the sense of historia rerum gestarum, i.e., the historical account of the events. We will, respectively, study the so-called speculative philosophy of history -where we examine questions such as the meaning and the end of history, factors and patterns of historical development- and the so-called critical or analytic philosophy of history - where we examine questions such as the objectivity of history, the role and significance of historical narrative, the difference between explanation and interpretation, historical understanding, what is a historical fact, the significance of history and the significance of differences between historical accounts. References will be made to the work of St Augustine, Vico, Kant, Herder, Hegel, Marx, Croce, Dilthey, Collingwood and other, more recent thinkers of the 20th century.

Φ119. Kant

A systematic introduction to Kant's philosophy, from the precritical to the critical period. The course concentrates on the main tenets of transcendental idealism developed and defended in the three Critiques, but also covers important theses and arguments put forth in some of Kant's short essays in moral and political philosophy and the philosophy of history. The discussion is based on the careful analysis of key passages and extends to a consideration of Kant's legacy in the history of modern and contemporary philosophy.

Φ120. German Idealism

A comprehensive account of the development of German idealism from Kant to Hegel. The course focuses on the positions and arguments of thinkers who first criticized the main tenets of Kant's philosophy and tried to develop his insights in novel ways in the areas of epistemology, metaphysics, ethics and aesthetics, including Fichte, Schelling and Hegel. The discussion also draws on the parallel study of texts by writers and poets of this period, such as Holderlin, Schiller and Goethe.

Φ121. Philosophical Logic

Issues about the logical properties of various kinds of expressions in natural languages, issues about non-classical systems of logic, as well as metaphysical and epistemological questions about logic, all fall within the range of this course. The first group of issues includes the following: is ëxists" a predicate? the logic of indicative conditionals; statements about what is necessary and what is possible; the logic of subjunctive conditionals; theories about the logical features of vague concepts. In order to tackle those problems, we frequently need to make use of ideas from the philosophy of language. The issues that concern non-classical logics include the following: intuitionism; free logic; quantum logic; are there true contradictions? Finally, the metaphysics and epistemology of logic comprise issues such as these: if a logical principle is correct, what makes it correct, the world or our conventions or something else? how do we know (if we do) that a given logical principle is correct? problems involving the concept of truth (such as certain paradoxes). Whenever the course is taught, a choice will be made from among all those topics.

Ι201. Scientific Revolution

The purpose of this course is to introduce students to the history of Scientific Revolution and to offer them a rough sketch of the period and the processes that gave birth to modern science. Conventionally, we take Scientific Revolution to cover the period, which starts with the emergence of the Copernican astronomy and ends with the Newtonian synthesis. However, part of the course deals with the developments in the late Medieval centuries and discusses the intellectual atmosphere as a result of the rediscovery of the Aristotelian philosophy and the emergence of the universities. Subsequently, we turn to the Renaissance and discuss the intellectual and social conditions, which boosted the reconstitution of the world image, and offered the ground upon which the ideas of Kepler and Galileo flourished. We continue with the mechanical philosophy and the examination of the new ideas concerning the course of natural phenomena and the functions of the human body. The course concludes with a detailed presentation of the Newtonian mechanics and the examination of the way such developments helped the new natural philosophy integrate with the new cosmology into a consistent whole.

Ι202. History of Science in Antiquity

The course explores some major themes in mathematics, astronomy, and natural science that were developed in ancient civilizations, with emphasis in ancient Greece. Among the covered topics are those indicated in the following list: Mathematics and astronomy in Egypt; mathematics and astronomy in Mesopotamia; the panorama of Greek mathematics; the emergence of the concept of the mathematical proof; Greek astronomy; ancient cosmologies and the theory of motion; the commentating tradition and the sciences in the period of Late Antiquity.

Ι203. Introduction to Historiography

The aim of the course is to discuss certain of the problems that concern the way we deal with the history of sciences. The course starts with a brief review of the history of the history of sciences and then it will focus on the analysis of the kind of questions posed by historians of science and the evidence and archives they use to answer them. During the course, different approaches towards the Scientific Revolution of the 16th and 17th centuries will also be discussed, as well as the modern tendencies in the historiography of science, which focus on the study of laboratories, scientific disputes and topics from the most recent history.

Ι204. History of Logic

Logic of Aristotle and his students (Theophrastus). The Logic of the Megarians and the Stoics. Logic during the Roman and Medieval period. Logic after the Renaissance (Leibniz, Bolzano and Mill). Algebraization of Logic (Hamilton, DeMorgan, Boole, Venn). Cantor's set theory and Frege's work. Russell's theory of types, ενορατισμός του Brouwer's intuitionism and Hilbert's programme. The work of Gödel.

Ι205. Greek Science in Modern Times

For a long time, the study of the modern Greek science was a rather marginal academic field. The aim of this course is to show how the Greek-speaking scholars of the 18th and 19th centuries contributed to the philosophical and the scientific thought of their time. We scrutinize the extended literature on the so-called neoHellenic Enlightenment and discuss texts, which relate to the establishment of the modern Greek nation state. Occasionally, we turn to the original texts of the 18th and 19th century scholars, and we try to place their contributions in the broader context of their contemporary European thought. The ambition of the course is to help students reassess the work of the Greek-speaking scholars and to exemplify the importance of the study of the scientific thought in the periphery for the discipline of history of science.

Ι206. History of Scientific and Technological Policy

Introduction to the emergence and development of (national and international) state and business institutions and practices that affected technology and science in recent centuries. The course is focused on the post-World War II decades. Examples discussed: activities of executive, legislative and judicial authorities, firm and inter-firm actions, initiatives of scientific and professional institutions (societies, clubs, associations, councils, chambers etc.), the place of regulatory and standardization institutions, the role of award and patent related institutions.

Ι207. History of Science and Technology in Modernity

The focus of this course may vary, in the sense that such an extended period cannot be covered at once. A central issue will be the study of the developments that follow the Scientific Revolution, as well as a comprehensive presentation of the sciences during the Enlightenment. In this respect, an important goal of the course is to examine the spread and the fate of Newton's theories and to examine the various new disciplines, which formulated on the basis of an idealized perception of Newtonian physics. This process brings us to the 19th century: The concept of energy displaces the concept of force and thermodynamics takes over the conservation laws, which by that time bore strong theological connotations. At the same time, the notions of science and of "scientist", in their contemporary meaning, come into being. The steam engine and the development of chemical and electric industry bring forth the interplay between the natural sciences and technology. In the last section of the course an attempt will be made to examine some aspects of this interplay during the 20th century, as it takes place, for example, in the emergence of computer science, the construction of the atomic bomb and the rearrangement of the natural sciences after World War II.

Ι208. History of Astronomy

This course offers an introduction to the history of Astronomy as the history of human endeavors to observe and understand celestial phenomena. Our goal is to introduce the major people and events in the History of Astronomy from the Babylonian and Ancient Greek area to the end of the Scientific Revolution and the triumph of Celestial Mechanics, and present the transformation of our understanding of the world. This is not a science course and our goal is not to teach you Astronomy. So the technical part is limited only to the introduction of the scientific concepts that played an important role in our understanding of the Universe. Our approach explores the close relation of the progressive development of the scientific understanding of Cosmos, with the role of culture, politics, and religion in the scientific debates in order to highlight the human aspect of Astronomy. The course will not survey all of the history of astronomy, but only major episodes placed in their historical context and introduced in a fairly chronological sequence. Topics: Egyptian and Babylonian Astronomy - Ancient Greek Astronomy - Ptolemaic Astronomy and Cosmology - The Copernican Revolution - Tycho Brahe and Kepler - Galileo - Newton - The Triumph of Celestial Mechanics.

Ι209. Historical Experiments in Physics

Famous experiments of genuine scientists (Galileo, Toricelli, Newton, Young, Fresnel, Galvani, Oersted, Ampere, Faraday, Carnot, Laplace, Joule, Rutherford, Plank etc.). Historical, economical and cultural background. Their past and their technological results. The role of these experiments in foundation of main theories.

Ι210. Science, Technology and Society:Technology and Development

The course maps critical approaches to the science, technology, and society relationship, which come from a range of disciplines and interdisciplinary fields, including the history, sociology, anthropology, and philosophy of technology and science. Included in the topics covered is the connection between technology/science and economic issues (e.g., work and unemployment, development and pollution), ideological issues (e.g., national and gender identity construction), and political issues (e.g., peace and war, democracy and totalitarianism).

Ι211. Elements of Technology

The course covers the following themes: The tool-machine demarcation. Devices. From machines to circuits and networks. Basic mechanical, electrical and electronic arrangements. Introduction to representative technologies. The key case of information and related technologies. Adjusting technology in use. Introduction to the technical vocabulary. Classes of technical drawing and other technical representations. Reading and writing technical texts. Technology in the web.

Ι212. History of Economic Thought in the 20th Century

The course consists of the following parts:

  • Theory of the firm: Chamberlin, Robinson, Sweezy.
  • Keynesian Economics: the Hicks-Hansen IS-LM approach, economic policy, Keynesian theories of economic growth.
  • The Chicago School: Friedman and Monetarism, Coase and property rights, Becker and household behaviour, Lucas and the theory of rational expectations.
  • Non-Mainstream Schools of Economic Thought: Neo-Institutionalism. Post-Keynesians, Neo-Marxists.

ΙΦ01. Artificial Intelligence

This course aims to provide the students with adequate knowledge on Artificial Intelligence issues and the respective solving methods. The course presents all the fields and the most important applications of Artificial Intelligence (AI), as also the programming tools that AI uses.

  • Basic Concepts of AI: problems' representation and solution, search algorithms, knowledge representation, reasoning.
  • Applications of AI: expert systems, neural networks, agent systems, natural language apprehension, machine vision, robotic.
  • Practice Teaching: the PROLOG programming language, basic concepts and applications' development.

ΙΦ02. Psychology of Cognition

The course examines systematically the theories of psychology dealing with the understanding of the processes of thinking, problem solving and learning. How do humans think? Is there rationality in human thought and what is the relation between logic and the psychology of thinking? What is the role of models of thought and when do humans use pictorial representations to solve a problem? The processes of induction, abduction and thinking by analogy are examined. The role of analogies in problem solving, in learning and in discovering. The importance of pre-existing knowledge and the theories about knowledge representation, categorizing, the formation and development of concepts and conceptual change. Examples are used from the area of learning and problem solving in the natural sciences and mathematics.

ΙΦ03. History of Psychology

The philosophical beginnings of psychology. The development of physiology and the problems of reductionism. Wund and the psychology of consciousness. Freud and psychoanalysis. Darwinism and its effects on psychology. Behaviorism. Cognitive psychology and cognitive science. The development of applied psychology. Problems and challenges of contemporary psychology.

Elective Courses

056. Special Topics in European History

The subject of this course covers the medieval period of Western Europe (5th - 15th century). Principal purpose is the understanding of fundamental institutions, such as the Empire, the feudal relations, the "peace of God" (Pax Dei), which shaped the western medieval state forms and consequently the medieval civilization. On completion of this course, students should be conversant with the institutional history of the western medieval Europe and able to investigate the European institutional evolution in the next centuries.

116. Longinus' "On the Sublime" and Modern Literary Criticism

Introduction to the ancient literary theory and the rules of creative writing in classical and [postclassical antiquity (Greek and Latin). The notion of style from antiquity till nowadays. Analysis of Longinus' treatise "On the Sublime" and of its philological dimensions (authorship, dating, structure of contents, stylistic documentation, influencing European criticism). Common places and theoretical reflections upon modern criticism, which are latently located in Longinus' treatise, as well as in related works (Aristotle, Dionysius from Halicarnassus, Horace, Cicero, Dimitrios the rhetor, and other).

133. Greek Painting of 19th and 20th Centuries

This course presents the development of Greek modern painting from its beginnings in the Ionian Islands to the present. Special attention will be given to the contributions of those painters who studied art in Munich Academy during the 19th century but also to those who went at the end of this century to Paris and brought new influences to Greek painting. Although 19th century Greek painters seemed to be quite conservative and followed mainly academic styles, at the beginning of the 20th century they turned their attention to landscape painting and studied the effects and skills of light and color. Students will learn about the artists of the first half of the 20th century, who have been influenced by impressionism and also about those, who are called "Generation of the 30's" and managed to combine avant-garde ideas with Greek tradition. The course closes with the examination of abstraction and other tensions in Greek painting, which often combine western and traditional characteristics.

134. Comparative Education and International Educational Policy

The aim of the course is a) to increase student awareness on aspects of policy making including actors, processes and policies, b) to improve their ability to analyze comparatively and to understand the dynamics of educational change worldwide, and c) to provide information concerning the education systems in Greece, England, France and Holland with special reference to higher education. Content:

  • Public interest in the foreign systems of education
  • The comparative argument in policy making
  • The aims of Comparative Education
  • The methodology of Comparative Education: the historical and scientific approaches
  • Education in Greece, England, France and Holland
  • The university: a comparative study of its ideological and institutional transformation.

147. Special Topics in Philosophy of Psychology

During this course we examine a variety of philosophical problems that surround the attempt to understand the nature of consciousness, e.g., qualia. We also attend to research from the field of neuroscience that is relevant to this venture, e.g., blindsight, synesthesia etc.

152. Special Topics in Moral, Political and Legal Theory II

This workshop is conducted over two sequential semesters. Most of its participants are faculty and graduate students from various institutions.

155. Modern Art

This course is a survey of major movements and trends in the history of modern art. Beginning with Impressionism and Post-Impressionism, students will follow the developments in visual arts through Cubism, Fauvism, Expressionism, Futurism, Dadaism and Surrealism. Finally, they will study the most important movements in post - war American and European art and explore critically various avant-garde methods used since 1960, when artist's scopes and practices radically changed. Special attention will be given to major artists, (i.e. Picasso, Klee, Kadinsky, Matisse, Modrian, Duchamp, DeChirico, Pollock, Kosuth, Warholl) and to the discussion of central topics such as Ïs this Art?", "Do traditional elements survive in revolutionary works of art?" and "Did modernist Art failure?".

164. Methodology and Philosophy of Informatics

An introduction to the history of computers. Internet and the Information Society. The diffusion of computing and communication technologies and the digital divide. Digital economy and e-government. Digital libraries and information retrieval. Philosophical questions in computer science and artificial intelligence. Computing methodologies.

165. Special Topics in Informatics

This course refers to topics concerning computational modelling, and especially the simulation of discrete systems. We examine the ways for analysing a real system and the information it provides, in order to represent it computationally, either as a monotone system or a probabilistic one. We examine also the results of the experimentation over the simulated system and the real profit that we could obtain by analysing these results.

167. Logic in Programming

This course examines at a practical level the special relationship that exists between Mathematical Logic and Computational Logic. We analyse the usual utilizations of logic elements in both Algorithmic and Logic Programming comparatively. We make use of the basic elements of two corresponding programming languages introduced in this course, namely Scheme and Prolog. In this course, our aim is to better clarify the logical possibilities of programming.

170. Knowledge Management

Knowledge has always been the necessary substratum for any effective use of the traditional means of production, land, labour and capital and in parallel of any economic and social transformation process. Recently a new emphasis has given to knowledge due to it?s significance for the newly developing sectors of economy especially those focusing in providing services. The knowledge in today's post-industrial era has to follow specific patterns of application. It is highly formalized (methodologies for knowledge capturing and codification, systematic classification of knowledge by means of ontologies, available for utilization by computers, representation, etc) and leading necessarily to the study of knowledge per se with respect to its usefulness in economy, in other words to the development of a new knowledge field, a meta-knowledge field about knowledge concerning of economic resources and social issues. Through out this module students will review and evaluate in depth the existing concepts and methodologies for effective knowledge management. After the successful accomplishment of the module students will be fluent in the usage of CommonKads methodology and they are going to be familiar with the methodologies and technologies used in the area of the Semantic Web (kif, rdf, owl, protege etc).

171. Special Topics in History of Technology

Computing, Telecommunications, Biotechnology. Topics covered: the analog-digital debate, the emergence and establishment of the software-hardware demarcation and the persistence of a software crisis, the transition from the ideal of a computer utility to the realities of personal computing, the history of human computers, the transition from the computer being a mathematical machine to the computer being a communication device, continuities and discontinuities from the history of the telegraph to the history of the internet, early histories of biotechnology, the hegemony of molecular biology and changes in the orientation of biotechnology, the convergence of computing, telecommunications, and biotechnology, the emergence of nanotechnology.

172. Special Topics in History of Mathematics

The course explores various topics of the history of mathematics, and emphasizes developments that took place in Europe, in the period from 1500 to 1800.

173. Introduction to the History of Medicine

The course aims to give provide an overall picture of the historical development of medicine, within the context of the history of science, and mainly from the viewpoint of a history of ideas and concepts. More specifically we will focus on:

  • Approaches to the historiography of medicine and related problems.
  • Main periods of the history of medicine (from ancient Greece to the 20th century) and main characteristics of each period.
  • Historical development of some central concepts in medicine, such as concepts of health and disease, ideas about the function of the human organism, the role and characteristics of medical treatment, the mode of action of drugs.

176. Special Topics in History of Medicine

The course aims at a more detailed and thorough examination of a special topic from the history of medicine. We will focus either on a particular time period (e.g. Ancient Greek medicine, Renaissance medicine), or on the historical evolution of a particular aspect of medicine (e.g. The development of ideas on health and disease). The topic as well as the names of colleagues who will participate in teaching will be announced before the beginning of the semester.

177. Theories of Law and Justice

This is an advanced course, which presents critically classical and modern theories of law and justice with a simultaneous focus on the thinkers that produced them and the specific problems they touched upon. The course is divided into two main parts. During the first part, we start by examining natural law theory and its opposition to legal positivism, and then proceed to the so-called continental philosophy of law, namely Kant, Hegel and Marx, trying to understand their views about the nature of law, liberty and equality, and the relation between state and individual through the fundamental distinction between public and private sphere. Finally, we examine two modern theories of justice, i.e. Rawls's political liberalism and Nozick's libertarian alternative. In the second part, the course will be based on students' presentations of contemporary problems: the security/liberty conflict, discrimination and affirmative action, freedom of speech (e.g. Muhammend's cartoons), multiculturalism (e.g. the ban of Muslim headscarves in France), and the philosophy of penal law (e.g. euthanasia, abortion etc).

178. Special Topics in Philosophy of Social Sciences

A graduate seminar offered to advanced undergraduates, which introduces students to rational choice theory, game theory and strategic thinking with references to the literature on behavioral economics, altruism, social norms and negotiation.

181. Special Topics in Philosophy of Mathematics

  • The status of natural numbers as logical objects in philosophy of Frege.
  • The status of natural numbers as 1) properties of natural collections in Mill's empiricism 2) properties of sets in Maddy's naturalistic realism.
  • Ontology of natural numbers: are numbers independent of mind entities or inventions? (the 'arithmetical realism' issue).
  • Field's fictionalism: natural numbers as fictions.
  • Indispensability arguments in philosophy of arithmetic: Numbers are indispensable to our best scientific theories (Quine-Putnam).
  • Semantics of arithmetical language. Wright's argument in favour of arithmetical platonism.
  • The problem of arithmetical knowledge. Is it a priori or a posteriori? How can numbers be known?
  • Versions of arithmetical structuralism.

183. Institutions and Economy

The purpose of this course is to present the theory of institutions and of institutional change, focusing on economic institutions and the way they change. A thesis will be supported according to which any serious study of economic phenomena requires the analysis of institutions, which surround these phenomena. The analysis will examine the concept and nature of `institutions', their difference from `organisations', the way they affect transaction and production costs and finally, their contribution to economic development through the cooperation of human beings. Given the conceptual framework, this series of lectures will deal with issues such as markets functioning and how the existing institutions determine their operation. The role of human behaviour in its effort to achieve economic efficiency through economic action will be reexamined and the concepts of Homo oeconomicus and Homo sociologicus will be redetermined. Treating 'political economy' as a system of ideas which provide a systematic coverage of the institutional environment in which economic agents act, the neoclassical economic theory and the relative conceptual framework is restated, giving special attention to hypotheses related to the behaviour of these economic agents.

184. Special Topics in History of Economic Thought

The course discusses different topics in the history of economic thought each time it is offered. Topics that have been discussed in the past: The influence of Positivism in the history of economic thought. Kuhnian scientific paradigms and schools of economic thought. Biblical economic thought. The Salamanca School. Ancient economic thought. The concept of happiness in economic thought.

186. History of Art I

This course is a close examination of the development of Italian Renaissance Art with special attention given to the contributions of the major artists. A chronological approach will be practiced, beginning with the artists of the Duecento and Trecento being seen as "precursors of the Renaissance", continuing with the Quattrocento labeled as the early Renaissance and closing with the Cinquecento known as the period of mature High - Renaissance and the Mannerism. Thematic topics will also be discussed, such as the role of antiquity, the development of individual, the social status of the artist, the power of patrons and church, the collaboration of artists and scientists etc. Students will familiarize with Italian Renaissance Art by analyzing important works, examining critically the causes leading to this revival and learning about the social, political, historical and cultural circumstances.

188. Critique of Pure Reason

The course provides a systematic study of the Critique of Pure Reason, beginning with a survey of the basic concepts of Kant's theoretical philosophy. It focuses on an analysis of exegetical issues concerning the proper construal of the main theses of transcendental idealism and of the role of transcendental arguments in their elucidation and defense. The approach adopted draws on a critical examination and a comparative assessment of alternative readings of the Kantian text put forth by contemporary scholars.

197. Entrepreneurship and Development

This course approaches the concepts and the relative methodology of entrepreneurship, in line with the teaching standards applied to both local and foreign universities. In that way all participants develop basic entrepreneurial skills. To this end, concepts like uncertainty, risk, return, innovation and opportunity are dealt with. Although the course is addressed to students with a moderate economic background, teaching tools established by the economic analysis are used. So by the end of the course students are able to deal with the basic concepts and methodology necessary to construct a business plan. Teaching will be enriched with many examples from real economy. Also problems faced by enterprises and organization of both the private and the public sector are tackled.

198. Introduction to Legal and Political Institutions

In this course the students are introduced to the basic principles of law and political science as well as to the leading theories of government and democracy. After an introduction to the modern Greek political and constitutional history, emphasis is given to Greek constitutional law theory. Basic institutions of Greek public and private law are also discussed, as well as the institutions of the European Union.

199. European Union: Institutions and Policies

An introduction to the institutions and policies of the European Union and its internal organization and functioning. After a historical introduction which extends from the foundation of the ECC to this day, special emphasis is given to the presentation of European Union's organs and institutions, to the importance of the Common Market, as well as to the decision-making mechanisms of its bodies.

200. Career Counselling and School Career Guidance

This course examines, at first, the concept of Career Counselling and the topics of Career Counselling. The different kinds of topics that interest clients are discussed, as well as the underlying problems and their importance for the career counsellors, the client-counsellor interaction and counselling skills. Then the stages of screening, contracting and exploring the problem are analyzed. The course also examines the use of tests, questionnaires and professional information, in order to help the client in the development of self-awareness, decision-making and action-taking. Emphasis is laid on the application of career counselling and guidance at school, taking into account the special needs of pupils for self-awareness, information, educational and professional choices and the transition from the school environment to the job market.

201. History of Graphic Arts

Students are introduced to the history of graphic arts by examining mostly the development of lithography, etching, serigraphy, and typography. They get familiar with the techniques of the above disciplines, which have as common characteristic the artistic process of creating a design using a medium and transferring the image to a material. Students trace the origins of printing techniques in the Tang dynasty (7th century), where carved wood blocks were used as a way to inscribe thousands of sheets with a memoir of an Empress, through Gutenberg's typography in the mid 15th century, until all the modern processes of producing posters, books, newspapers etc. Special attention is given to the analysis of engravings, produced by important masters from Renaissance to our days, such as Duerer, Delacroix and Escher, while the relation between graphic design and some 20th century's movements, especially Art Nouveau, is also thoroughly examined.

202. Art and Cinema

The purpose of this course is to offer a comparative study of visual arts and film through two different approaches. The first concerns biographies of visual artists as the subject of modern cinema, shown through both art movies and documentaries. The second refers to the influence of the avant-garde art scene of the first half of the 20th century on the innovative trends in cinema during its boom time. In the first part of the course the students will watch and analyze biographical films and documentaries, and will also be taught the elements of the biographical method in art history: the aim is to demonstrate the differences between scientific (history of art, documentary) and artistic approaches (film) to biography. The second part of the course investigates expressionistic and surrealistic films as well as pre-war experimental films made by visual artists: the aim is to show the influence of visual artists on some filmmakers of the early 20th century who sought multiple expressive outlets in their efforts to develop an innovative cinema scene.

204. Special Topics in Economic History

In this course we will focus on the history of economic institutions, practices and behaviours. In conformity to the basic periods of European history, we will examine a set of issues pertinent to the socio-economic organisation of pre-industrial societies, such as economic demography and geography, rural and urban economy, organisation and operation of markets, the forms of economic activities, tax policies, work and gender, as well as problems of economic growth in pre-modern societies. Furthermore, issues of social stratification, economic inequalities and social welfare will be equally taken into consideration.

215. Physical Sciences and Society in the 20th century

The aim of this course is to examine various critiques of science during the second half of the  twentieth century. Those critiques derived from the new social function of science as well as from the inadequacy of previous theoretical conceptions of the nature of science.

216. Women in the History of Science

This course focuses on the history of women in science. This history is at first a history of absence and exclusion and later a history of marginalization of women from the 'official' sites of knowledge production. At the same time it is the history of the shaping of the notion of genre from science itself. The aim of this course is to study the place of women in different scientific fields from the early modern period until our days, as well as the ways in which the shaping of the notion of gender in specific cultural contexts has become one of the mechanisms of exclusion of women from science.

217. Biological Concepts and Systems

The objective of the course is on the one hand to familiarise students with the subject and several basic concepts of biological systems, on the other hand to present and demonstrate the various modelling techniques and to study in vivo indicative experimental models. The course surveys the concepts and problems of systems theory as applied to biological problems with emphasis on modern and/or specialised subjects, such as self-organisation, autonomy, autopoiesis and behavioral emergence. The course also briefly presents some fundamental approaches and problems of behavioral and evolutionary biology that constitute systematic modelling targets, such as sociobiology and the species problem. At a practical level, a number of examples are given on modelling, experimentation and study with mathematical, computational and graphical methods, as well as a comparison and evaluation of the various methodologies.

219. Special Topics on the History of Physics and Chemistry

The aim of this course is to study the rise of big science and its impact on scientific practice: on scientific institutions (Universities and Research Laboratories), on the funding of the sciences, on their social function, and on their relations with industry and the military. A substantial part of the course focuses on the history of the atomic bomb, which signals the transition to big science.

220. Special Topics in Contemporary Philosophy

In this course we present and discuss certain issues within Empiricism as they were developed in the 20th century. Emphasis is given in the issue of a distinction between the analytic and the synthetic and the scheme-content distinction (from the Vienna Circle to Davidson).

221. Special Topics in Human Resource Management

This course is concerned with human resource management (HRM) and the ways in which organizations manage their employees. We shall outline and explore particular aspects of HRM processes and practices, identify some of the major changes occurring within organizations and highlight the new challenges for HR management. These appear of particular importance in viewing HRM holistically through real-life cases that facilitate to understand how HR theory is related to workplace practices. Thus, we shall critically discuss a variety of specific issues, such as:

  • HRM: the organizational context.
  • Ethics and HRM.
  • Entrepreneurship and HRM.
  • Work-life balance.
  • Meaningful work.
  • Employee well-being.
  • Managing occupational health and safety.
  • Toward a participative and inclusive workplace: equality, diversity and dignity at work.
  • The 'dark side' of organizational life: Organizational politics, bullying and discrimination.
  • Intercultural aspects of HRM practices: workplace spirituality and Spiritual Leadership.

222. History of Classical Scholarship

The history of the science of classical scholarship: its origin and formation in the Hellenistic times and through the ancient scholars of Alexandria, the philological 'schools' in later antiquity, Christian Church and classical studies, the Byzantine era, the scholars of Renaissance and Humanism, its flourishing epoch in modern Europe (Italy, France, Holland, England and Germany), the 19th and 20th centuries, modern Greek classical scholarship from the fall of Constantinople and forerunners such as Musurus and Korais, up to the foundation of the University of Athens (1837), Kontos and Sykoutris.

223. Metaethics

The course comprises a systematic study of central semantic, epistemological and ontological issues concerning the content and the normative function of moral concepts and of moral judgments. It provides a historical survey of the development of metaethics as a branch of moral philosophy in the analytic tradition, from the beginning of the twentieth century to the present. It focuses on the recent debate on moral realism and proposes an analysis of a variety of texts by contemporary philosophers, with a view to making possible a critical assessment of the main alternative positions, theories and arguments.

241. Metaphilosophy

The course deals with the main alternative conceptions of the nature and the methods of philosophy from antiquity to the present.  It focuses on a variety of issues, particularly concerning the relations between philosophy and the sciences, philosophy and everyday life, philosophy and its history.  It proposes the study of views regarding the proper treatment of philosophical problems, put forth in the context of different theories, "schools" and philosophical trends. The topics to be explored  include the opposition between "analytic" and "continental" philosophy and the critical assessment of the therapeutic, anti-theoretical conception of philosophizing elaborated by Wittgenstein and his followers.

242. Special Issues in Philosophy of Mind

The philosophy of emotions is a relatively new but vibrant field of research. Drawing on both classic sources, and contemporary analytic works, the course will offer a systematic introduction to the main philosophical theories of emotional phenomena, including cognitivism, eliminativism, and naturalism. Issues to be addressed include: the intentionality of feelings, the role of emotions in rational deliberation, the connection between emotional and bodily feelings, and questions of normativity pertaining to the relation between value and emotional judgments.

243. Experimental Psychology

The aim of this course is to introduce students to the methodology of Psychological research and thus facilitate their understanding of Psychology as an experimental science. By using classical experiments which have contributed significantly to our understanding of perceptual, learning and memory mechanisms, students will be trained on how to design and execute experiments, as well as collect, process, describe and interpret experimental data. They will also get an idea on how an original scientific article is produced. Teaching will be complemented with laboratory demonstrations and exercises, so that the students will get acquainted with the execution of a strict experimental procedure as well as experience the role of the participant.

244. Special Topics in the History of Technology

The course combines a general introduction to the history of technology during the recent decades with an emphasis on a set of crucial technologies. It covers the history of computing and telecommunications, the history of biotechnology and biomedical technology, and, the history of the relationship between technological change and environmental crisis (especially in connection to the search of alternative-renewable energy technologies).

245. Topics in Metaphysics

The focus of this course will be issues in the metaphysics of science, and in particular causation, laws of nature and essentialism.

246. Philosophy and Film

The course proposes the study of the relations between philosophy and cinema. It begins with a general philo-sophical appraisal of the peculiarity of cinematic art dealing also with its importance for philosophical aesthetics. The discussion proceeds to a thorough examination of the direct and indirect contribution of films to philosophical thought, involving both their form and content,  through the analysis of particular examples. Τhese include  important works by various directors (Bergman, Antonioni, Fellini, Visconti, Kurosawa, Wenders, Rohmer, Kubrick).  The approach developed in the course aims at showing the relevance of cinematic creation to the investigation of traditional philosophical problems in the areas of epistemology, metaphysics and ethics.

247. History and Theory of Psychiatry

The aim of this seminar is to familiarize the students with the historical conditions of psychiatry's emergence as a distinct scientific field, at the beginning of the 19th century, with important stages of its course and with the changing interpretations of mental illness and mentally ill people. Through the examination of the established psy-chiatric discourse and of what it has defined as 'madness' and 'mad-man', there will be examined the ways of their treatment and interpre-tation, their segregation from the world of 'reason' and their confine-ment within institutions, their transformation into objects of a special-ized knowledge and an established scientific discourse. A special em-phasis will be put upon the birth of psychoanalysis, while there will be examined psychiatry's evolution in Greece. On the other hand, our aim is to study the current theoretical approaches to psychiatry and mental illness; the first histories of psychiatry's triumph and progress, the epistemological work of Canguilhem and Kuhn, Foucault's thought, important trends that have followed (the so-called 'anti-psychiatry' movement), as well as the representations of mental illness in art. Our main reference framework will be Europe.

248. Modelling and Simulation

The objective of the course is to familiarise students with the subject, the terminology and  and the principal methodologies of modelling and simulation. The course surveys the fundamental modelling approaches that are based on continuous or discrete mathematical models, as well as the newer graphical, network-based, computational and agent-based approaches that adopt an algorithmic view. The course also surveys the simulation approaches of discrete or continuous time and space, the discrete event approach and the stochastic approaches. All examples are drawn from the economic and social systems field and a comparative study of the various approaches is attempted, for example the comparative application of mathematical populational and behavioural methods to the study of investor behaviour in a stock market or to a demographical problem. The course also briefly presents some methodological and theoretical concepts that refer to modelling and simulation, such as validation.

249. Cultural Resources Management

The epistemological environment of the field: content, evolution, theories. Processing of cultural concepts: cultural heritage, cultural resources, cultural management. Critical review and interpretation of methods and practices applied.